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群书治要360中英对照 | 夫富民者

夫(fú/ㄈㄨ/)富民者,以农桑为本,以游业①为末;百工者,以致用为本,以巧饰为末;商贾者,以通货为本,以鬻(yù/ㄩ\)奇②为末。三者守本离末,则民富;离本守末,则民贫;贫则阨(…

夫(fú/ㄈㄨ/)富民者,以农桑为本,以游业①为末;百工者,以致用为本,以巧饰为末;商贾者,以通货为本,以鬻(yù/ㄩ\)奇②为末。三者守本离末,则民富;离本守末,则民贫;贫则阨(è/ㄜ\)③而忘善,富则乐而可教。教训者,以道义为本,以巧辨为末;辞语者,以信顺④为本,以诡丽⑤为末;列士⑥者,以孝悌为本,以交游⑦为末;孝悌以致养⑧为本,以华观为末;人臣者,以忠正为本,以媚爱⑨为末。五者守本离末,则仁义兴;离本守末,则道德崩⑩。(卷四十四 潜夫论)

(注释)①游业:流动的职业。如行商等。②鬻奇:出售稀见货物。③阨:困厄;困窘。④信顺:真实而通达。⑤诡丽:奇异华丽。⑥列士:古时上士、中士和下士的统称。⑦交游:交际,结交朋友。⑧ 致养:奉养亲老。⑨媚爱:取悦,取宠。⑩崩:败坏。

(白话)要使百姓富裕,以农事生产为本,以流动的职业为末;各种工艺,以实用为本,以雕琢装饰为末;买卖经商,以流通货物为本,以出售珍奇货物来谋利为末。这三者若能守住根本、远离枝末,百姓就会富裕;如果远离根本而守住枝末,百姓就会贫穷;百姓贫穷就会陷入困境而无心行善,百姓富裕就会安乐而容易教化。教育训导,以道德仁义为本,以巧言善辩为末;言论话语,以诚信顺理为本,以奇异华丽为末;知识分子,以孝顺父母、友爱兄弟为本,以交友应酬为末;落实孝悌,以尽心奉养为本,以图表面、讲排场为末;身为部属,以忠诚正直为本,以谄媚讨好为末。这五者让人们守住根本、远离枝末,仁义的风气就会兴盛;假如远离根本而守住枝末,道德就会败坏。

To increase wealth for the people, first and foremost base the economy on farming and textile production above miscellaneous economic activities. To utilize the skills of craftsmen properly, place the priority on practical projects above decorative works. In business transactions, place proper distribution of goods to the populace above selling exotic items. People will become wealthier if these three principles are followed. But if the least important became the most important, people will become poorer, and when they become poorer they will forsake proper behavior as opposed to what they would do if they were richer. Likewise, in the field of education, imparting lessons that enable people to become moral individuals is more important than training people to become artful debaters. In the use of language, being truthful and sensible is more important than the ability to use flowery and cunning descriptions. For a learned individual, being filial and respectful toward his parents and elders is more important than entertaining his friends. In the practice of filial piety, what is important is to perform one’s duties with utmost reverence rather than lavishly displaying pomp and ceremony. For a subordinate, being loyal to his superior is more important than being a flatterer. If these five principles are followed, the practice of benevolence and righteousness will flourish. Abandoning what is important and pursuing what is less important will lead to the decline of morality in society. Scroll 44: Qian Fu Lun

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