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群书治要360中英对照 | 名不正,则言不顺;言不顺,则事不成

子路曰:“卫君①待子而为政,子将奚先?”问往将何所先行之也。子曰:“必也,正名乎!正百事之名也。名不正,则言不顺;言不顺,则事不成;事不成,则礼乐不兴;礼乐不兴,则刑罚不中(zhò…


子路曰:“卫君①待子而为政,子将奚先?”问往将何所先行之也。子曰:“必也,正名乎!正百事之名也。名不正,则言不顺;言不顺,则事不成;事不成,则礼乐不兴;礼乐不兴,则刑罚不中(zhòng/ㄓㄨㄥ\)②;礼以安上,乐以移风,二者不行,则有淫刑滥罚矣。刑罚不中,则民无所措手足。”(卷九 论语)

(注释)①卫君:指卫灵公的孙子出公辄。因其父蒯聩谋害灵公正妻南子事败而出奔,他承袭祖父卫灵公担任该国君主。②中:适当、恰当。

(白话)子路问孔子:“如果卫国的君主打算请您去辅助他治国,不知您将以何事为先?”孔子说:“那一定是先正名,使名分与事实(身分等)相符。如果名不正,则言语不能顺理成章;言不顺,办事就不易成功;办事不成功,礼乐的教化就不能兴起;礼乐不兴起,刑罚就会用之不当;刑罚不当,人民就会感觉手足无措,天下就乱了。”

Zilu asked Confucius: “If the ruler of Wei is anticipating your assistance in the administration of his state, what will be your top priority?” Confucius said: “What is necessary is to define terms more precisely. If terms are not precise, then what is commanded cannot be accurately obeyed. If what is commanded cannot be accurately obeyed, work cannot be accomplished. If work cannot be accomplished, propriety and music will not flourish. If propriety and music do not flourish, punishments will not be properly applied. If punishments are not properly applied, then people will have no standard to judge their actions.” Scroll 9: Lun Yu

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