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群书治要360中英对照 | 昔者成王,幼在襁褓之中,召公为大保,周公为太傅,太公为太师

昔者成王,幼在襁(qiǎng/ㄑㄧㄤ\/)褓(bǎo/ㄅㄠ\/)①之中,召(shào/ㄕㄠ\)公为大(tài/ㄊㄞ\)保,周公为太傅,太公为太师。保保其身体;傅傅之德义;师导之教训…


昔者成王,幼在襁(qiǎng/ㄑㄧㄤ\/)褓(bǎo/ㄅㄠ\/)①之中,召(shào/ㄕㄠ\)公为大(tài/ㄊㄞ\)保,周公为太傅,太公为太师。保保其身体;傅傅之德义;师导之教训:此三公职也。于是为置三少,少保少傅少师,是与太子宴者也。故乃孩提有识,三公三少,明孝仁礼义,以导习之,逐去邪人,不使见恶行。于是皆选天下之端士,孝悌博闻有道术者,以卫翼②之,使与太子居处出入。故太子乃生而见正事,闻正言,行正道,左右前后皆正人。……孔子曰:“少成若天性,习贯③如自然。”(卷十六 汉书四)

(注释)①襁褓:背负婴儿用的宽布带和包裹婴儿的被子。②卫翼:犹辅佐。③贯:亦作“惯”。

(白话)从前周成王年幼在襁褓中,便请来召公做太保,周公做太傅,太公做太师。保,是保护太子的身体;傅,是以道德仁义来教导他;师,是以圣贤教诲来启发他,这就是三公的职责。于是又设立“三少”,少保、少傅、少师,这是与太子生活在一起的人。所以当太子幼年懂事时,三公、三少就讲明孝、仁、礼、义的道理,引导他落实,并驱逐奸邪之人,不让太子见到不好的行为。因此选出天下品行端正的君子,以及孝顺友悌、见闻广博、有学问道德的人,保护辅助他,让他们陪伴太子朝夕相处、同出同入。所以当太子生下来,所见的都是正事,所听的都是正言,所行的都是正道,在他左右前后都是正人君子。……孔子说:“从小养成的品德就像天性一样,自然而然会变成习惯。”

When King Cheng of Zhou dynasty was an infant, Zhao Gong was the crown prince’s Tai-bao, whose duty was to safeguard the physical wellness of the crown prince. Zhou Gong, was his Tai-fu, whose duty was to guide the crown prince with moral and ethical codes of conduct. And Tai Gong, who was his Tai-shi, was responsible for inspiring the crown prince with the wisdom of the sages. In addition to the Three Venerated Elders (San-gong) and their duties, another Three Supporting Elders (San-shou), namely–Shao-bao, Shao-fu and Shao-shi were established to accompany the crown prince in his learning on a daily basis. Thus, ever since the young prince could comprehend teachings, the three venerated elders and the three supporting elders had imparted lessons on the moral principles of filial piety, benevolence, propriety and righteousness to the crown prince, guiding him to implement these principles. Moreover, all deviant characters were banished from the vicinity of the prince so that he would not be corrupted by deviant behavior. Only individuals who were filial and respectful of kinship, gentlemen. …Confucius said:”Lessons learned from a young age will become so natural to an individual that they become natural habits.” knowledgeable and virtuous were chosen to live with the prince on a daily basis. Therefore, from the moment that the crown prince was born, all that he saw was proper, all that he heard was proper, and all that he practiced was proper because all the people by his side were righteous. Scroll 16: Han Shu, Vol.4

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