【群书治要360】改过:闻其过失而改之,见义而从之

【群书治要360】改过:闻其过失而改之,见义而从之

正體版

古者聖王之制,史①在前書過失,工②誦箴(zhēn/ㄓㄣ)諫③,庶人④謗⑤於道,商旅⑥議於市,然後君得聞其過失也。聞其過失而改之,見義而從之,所以永有天下也。(卷十七 漢書五)

(註釋)①史:古時在君王左右,掌管文書和記事等職的官吏。②工:古代有負責讀誦詩文的官吏,常在君王身側進行規勸。③箴諫:規戒勸諫的話。④庶人:平民百姓。⑤謗:指責別人的過失。⑥商旅:來往各地買賣貨物的商人。

(白話)從前聖王的制度中,史官在前記載君主的過失,誦詩文之工,讀誦規勸君主的詩文,百姓在道路上指責君主的過失,商群書治要三旅之人在街市上議論君主的過錯,這樣君主才能聽到自己的過失。聽到了過失就改正,看見了符合道義的做法就積極落實,這是他們長久擁有天下的原因。

简体版

古者圣王之制,史①在前书过失,工②诵箴(zhēn/ㄓㄣ)谏③,庶人④谤⑤于道,商旅⑥议于市,然后君得闻其过失也。闻其过失而改之,见义而从之,所以永有天下也。(卷十七 汉书五)

(注释)①史:古时在君王左右,掌管文书和记事等职的官吏。②工:古代有负责读诵诗文的官吏,常在君王身侧进行规劝。③箴谏:规戒劝谏的话。④庶人:平民百姓。⑤谤:指责别人的过失。⑥商旅:来往各地买卖货物的商人。

(白话)从前圣王的制度中,史官在前记载君主的过失,诵诗文之工,读诵规劝君主的诗文,百姓在道路上指责君主的过失,商群书治要三旅之人在街市上议论君主的过错,这样君主才能听到自己的过失。听到了过失就改正,看见了符合道义的做法就积极落实,这是他们长久拥有天下的原因。

英文版

The government of the ancient sage-kings had official historians who recorded the mistakes made by the ruler, and official musicians to sing ballads to remind the ruler of his mistakes. Ordinary folk could be heard making criticisms against the ruler on the roadside, and businessmen could be heard discussing the ruler's faulty actions in the marketplace. Thus, sage rulers were able to hear about their mistakes and correct them, and to implement sensible policies that were just and honorable. These were factors that contributed to the longevity of their government. Scroll 17: Han Shu, Vol.5

【群书治要360】改过:闻其过失而改之,见义而从之

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